Studies on the mechanism of action of a proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP)
Proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP) discovered and isolated for the first time from ovine colostrum in our Laboratory shows immunoregulatory and procognitive activities. It has beneficial effects on the cognitive function of older rats, shows signs of psychostimulation, improves the mood and cognitive abilities in humans. In the form of orally administered tablets – ColostrininTM it improves the outcome of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Now, proline-rich polypeptide complex isolated from bovine colostrum in the form of the nutritional supplement Colostrinin, CogniSure or Cognase is marketed in 10 countries, including Poland. The mechanism of action of PRP/Colostrinin in AD is not yet fully clarified. Experiments on mechanism of PRP action were performed in vivo on mice, ex vivo on whole human blood cells and in vitro on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, HL-60 and THP-1 cells. It was shown that therapeutic effects could be connected with modulatory effect on cytokine secretion, inhibition of NO overproduction. The beneficial effects of PRP/Colostrinin observed in AD patients may be due to regulatory activity of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of reactive oxygen species, which promote neurodegenerative processes. The efeect of PRP on inflammatory processes may be associated with the influence of PRP on NF-κB tranclocation. Effects of proline rich polypeptide complex are reflected by one of its component – nonapeptide VESYVPLFP (NP). NP can directly interact with amyloid beta, inhibit its aggregation and disrupt existing aggregates and reduce toxicity induced by aggregated forms of Aβ.
Studies on the transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding the human neonatal Fcγ receptor (hFcRn)
Receptor hFcRn was first discovered in the placenta by Story, Mikulska, Simister. Recently is present in a variety cell types in humans: in vascular endothelium of the skin, skeletal muscle, liver; in epithelial cells of small intestine, colon, bronchial, lung, kidney, epidermis; in immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells. Receptor hFcRn participates in the transport of maternal IgG to the fetus, mucosal immunity, regulates plasma IgG concentrations. The knowledge of the structure of the gene encoding hFcRn, identification of the hFcRn promoter (pioneer studies in cooperation with Brandeis University) serve as a basis for a further studies. Now, the identification of regulatory elements and transcription factors participating in the transcriptional regulation of the human FcRn is the aim of our work. An understanding of the transcriptional regulation of this gene may find in the future an application, for example, in therapy of IgG-mediated autoimmune diseases.